Dedicated engine pages:
- 20R: One of the more famed R-series engines, from 1975
- R-series: the four-cylinders that could
- 4A-F: hot 1980s-90s DOHC fours
- 5M-GE: 1982-86 DOHC V6 powerplants
- GR: The current 3.5 liter V6 family
- RZ: the current 2.7 liter family, which started back in 1989
- JZ series high-performance straight-six engines (Supra and others)
- Also see the transmissions page.
The 1.2 liter engines of the early 1970s had a 71 cubic inch displacement and 9.0:1 compression. They had a single two-barrel carburetor, and produced (in 1974) 65 net horsepower at 6,000 rpm and 67 pound-feet of torque at 3,800 rpm. This engine was only used in one model of the Corolla.
The 1.6 liter engines launched with the 1974 cars displaced 97 cubic inches, and had 8.5:1 compression; they too had a single one-barrel carburetor, producing 88 horsepower at 6,000 rpm and 91 lb-ft of torque at 3,800 rpmp in 1974. This engine was used in the Corolla and Carina.
The 1974 Corona and Celica used the 18R 120 cubic inch engine with the same 8.5:1 compression, producing 97 hp @ 5,500 rpm and 106 lb-ft @ 3,600 rpm; buyers had a choice of four-speed manual or three-speed automatic.
The 1974 Mark II used an in-line six-cylinder engine displacing 156 cubic inches, producing 122 hp @ 5200 rpm and 141 lb-ft @ 3,600 rpm. Buyers could choose a four-speed manual or three-speed automatic.
Toyota engine chart courtesy of Matt Yi, 1979-1989
The 5A-F was produced through 1987; the 5A-FE (fuel injected) introduced the same year and was used in the seventh generation Corollas from 1995 to 1998 (overseas models only). The thermostat was oddly located on the inlet side, under the distributor.
Thanks for the update, Caleb Lounds.
Toyota engines by car (Matt Yi), 1979-1989
Toyota uses the first digit in their engine designations to indicate the engine's generation. For example, the old 4A-FE was the fourth generation A engine. The 1ZZ-FE is the first generation ZZ engine. However... the 1JZ and 2JZ were separated by a single year and were made simultaneously.
The 1983 Cressida and Celica Supra were the first cars to get a new 2.8 liter straight-six. This modern powerplant had twin cams and electronic fuel injection, and produced a hefty-for-the-time 150 horsepower at 5,200 rpm and 159 lb-ft of torque at 4,400 rpm. In the Supra, it was paired with a five-speed manual transmission. By 1988, the Supra had 3.0 liter twin-cam V6 with 24 valves and a total output of 200 horsepower; an intercooled turbocharger option boosted that to 230 horsepower.
The ordinary Celica had to make due with the 2.4 liter four-cylinder engine also used by Toyota trucks in that year, with 100 horsepower and 130 lb-feet of torque. The standy 2.4 was fuel-injected starting in 1983. By 1988, the Celica’s GT-S engine was putting out a full 135 horsepower (from a 2.0 liter twin cam 16 valve engine), with an optional 190 horsepower in the All-Trac Turbo - an all wheel drive turbocharged version of the Celica that predated the Subaru WRX by quite a few years. That level of power was V8 territory in those days.
The first generation Celica (and other cars) used the confusingly-labelled 18R 2.0 liter engine, which produced 86-89 hp, and 105-107 lb-feet of torque; an 18R-C variant was sold in California from 1971 to 1974, producing 97 horsepower and 106 lb-ft of torque. The 18R displaced 1968 cc, and had a bore and stroke of 3.48 x 3.15 inches (88.5 x 80 mm).
The 20R and 4A-GE engine
Introduced in 1975 in the Celica and Corona, the 20R engine used a hemispherical head design for optimal fuel-burning and power generation at high rpm; it was however designed to meet and beat emissions standards as well, without the power-sapping add-ons other manufacturers were resorting to. The 20R was a 2.2 liter (2189cc) single-overhead cam (SOHC) design.
The 1.6 liter 4A-GE was a higher-compression (9.4:1 rather than 9.0:1), electronically fuel injected, 16-valve version of the 4A, with 112 horsepower and 97 lb-feet of torque. This latter engine used dual cams, a central spark plug (“semi-hemi”), and variable induction - a series of valves in the induction ports to improve intake velocity at low engine speed, andincrease airflow at higher speeds. An oil cooler was standard. Transmissions used with the 4A-GE were the close-ratio five-speed stick and the four-speed automatic.
In modern times, the Toyota Corolla has used two different engine families (shared with the Celica).
Corollas made from 1993 to 1997 had two engine choices, the 1.6 liter 4A-FE and the 1.8 liter 7A-FE. The 1.8 was used in the GT-S. As emissions laws and tuning changed, horsepower figures moved around slightly, but not enough that the average person would notice: in 1993, horsepower was 110 hp at 5,600 rpm. By 1996, less peak power was available, but you could get it more quickly: 105 hp at 5,200 rpm. Torque went up by two foot-pounds in the same time, from 115 to 117.
1998 models benefitted greatly from a new engine family. Most automakers in the late 1990s were able to create new engine families with more power, better economy, and lower emissions, partly because of new technologies (distributorless ignition, returnless sequential fuel injection, etc.) but also because of computer-aided design and modelling. Some, notably GM and Chrysler, took the same engine blocks and squeezed large new chunks of power out of them, without losing efficiency.
In Toyota's case, the 1ZZ-FE engine combined substantially more power and economy with cleaner burning of fuel. It debuted with 120 hp (at 5,200 rpm) and 122 lb-ft of torque (at 4,400 rpm), which means that it not only makes more power than its predecessor, but does not need to be revved as high to do it. The result is a very fast car that feels peppy at all engine speeds. This engine later went up to 130 hp and 125 lb-ft of torque. See a timing chain tensioner “DIY” with photos, for the 1ZZ-FE.
The ZZ is an aluminum block engine which uses iron cylinder liners - a common design now. The deck is open, which saves weight and allows for greater precision in construction, also results in less cylinder strength, really only a problem for those who want to turbocharge or supercharge their engines with a high degree of boost. On the other hand, the bottom end has been strengthened with a full-size main bearing girdle.
Like the ol' Chrysler slant six, the 1ZZ-FE has a fairly long stroke, which is one reason it makes good torque. The bore is 79 mm, the stroke is 91.5 mm. There are two cams and 16 valves (four per cylinder).
The heads are designed to provide knock resistance while keeping combustion efficient. Their tapered squish area design, which forces a mixture of fuel and air at the spark plug, allows for a high compression ratio of 10:1 - on regular gas.
The valve seats, rather than being pressed into the head, are sprayed on, allowing them to be much thinner than standard valve seats - the result is efficient transfer of heat through the valve seats instead of the valve stems. This allows the valve stems to be relatively thin and light, so that the valve springs can be lighter, reducing wasted power and allowing for thinner cam lobes. This also means that the twin cams can be driven by a quiet, compact single-roller timing chain.
The fuel injection is returnless (a technique pioneered by Chrysler), with a pressure regulator in the gas tank, to reduce fire risk and make combustion more efficient.
The exhaust manifold is short, with the catalytic converter very close to the engine. To allow this, the aluminum intake manifold was moved to the front of the engine. Long intake runners were used to increase low-rev power. Toyota uses extruded aluminum, which is smoother than cast aluminum, and made the runners fairly wide.
2000 saw the introduction of the next generation ZZ engine, which includes variable valve technology ("VVT-i" for Toyota, "VTEC" for Honda, and there are others) to raise power by 5 hp while increasing fuel efficiency by about two or three miles per gallon.
2003 saw yet another major advancement, this one in gas mileage. Though the 2003 Corolla added both weight and a little horsepower - another 5 hp, making it 130 in total with 125 lb-ft of torque - gas mileage actually increased, thanks to direct injection. This system, long used by Mitsubishi in smaller engines, is even more efficient than the now-common sequential multiple-port electronic fuel injection, eliminating one more step in the process where fuel can fall out of suspension - essentially squirting it directly into the cylinder. Toyota is the first company to put direct injection into a standard-price "large" four-cylinder engine.
A new design, the two-liter M20A-FKS engine featured a lightweight resin cylinder-head cover, a more rigid crank. Compared with the old 1.8 liter Corolla engine, the 2.0 M20A-FKS was smaller in size, and lighter in weight.
The D-4S fuel injection system switched between direct injection and low-pressure port fuel injection, depending on driving conditions; it had dual variable valve timing, with the intake controlled by an electric motor and the exhaust controlled by hydraulic pressure.
To increase torque, the engine had a longer stroke than the old 2ZR-FAE. Changes to the heads and fuel injection allowed for up to 13:1 compression. These changes included an enlarged valve lip angle and laser-clad valve seats; in addition, tumble and knocking were reduced by adding air volume, pistons with a round top surface, and slanted sidewalls. The design was also intended to reduce friction.
Like the old 2ZR engines, which were offered alongside the M20A but on lesser models, the M20A was a dual-overhead-cam design with four valves per cylinder.
Note: the following table is for the U.S.-spec 2021 Corolla.
|Bore x stroke||3.17 x 3.84||3.17 x 3.48|
|Horsepower||169 @ 6,600||137-140 @ 6,100|
|Torque (lb-ft)||151 @ 4,400||126 @ 4,000|
|Displacement||1987 cc||1798 cc|
|Fuel injection||Direct + Port||Port|
|Fuel||87 (regular)||87 (regular)|
* M20A: Corolla SE CVT; 2ZR: L and LE model. M20A was only 29/36 with 6MT and 31/38 on XSE. 2ZR was 29/37 on XLE.
There were other changes, as well. There were now three oil jets per cylinder, to reduce knocking, friction, and oil use; and a drain path within the crankcase, to return oil from the cylinder head, resulting in less oil agitation from the crankshaft. The rods were made of high-strength steel for lower weight, and the cam had a concave profile to increase valve lift.