Toyota assembly and parts plants

by David Zatz

Toyota is the seventh largest company in the world and the second largest manufacturer of automobiles, with production facilities in 28 nations around the world — and the highest-production facility of any non-domestic automaker in the United States. Generally, Japanese plants are flexible and produce multiple models, while foreign (especially American) plants are devoted to a single model.

1968 toyota assembly plant

Toyota plants around the world

Note: This list was last fully updated in 2006-07 and is slated to be updated again soon. Updated somewhat January 20, 2020.

2006-07 snapshot

In June 2006, Toyota had 52 overseas manufacturing companies in 27 countries outside Japan; Toyota markets vehicles in more than 170 countries / regions.

The Toyota Motor Group sold about 8.8 million Toyota/Lexus, Daihatsu and Hino vehicles worldwide in 2006, marking a new record. In 2007, the Group is aiming for a 6 percent increase in worldwide sales. Toyota President Katsuaki Watanabe, in his 2007 new year’s greeting, said that Toyota must implement thorough measures concerning quality and reinforce the foundations of manufacturing by implementing additional localization measures, including human resources development from a global perspective and further support for local affiliates to operate autonomously. Toyota intends to introduce a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) that can run on 100% bioethanol in Brazil. The year 2007 will be the 70th anniversary of the establishment of Toyota Motor Corporation.

Toyota recently put special Komatsu stamping equipment into its San Antonia plant; the new presses use a third less energy than the prior stampers, and are quiet enough that employees no longer need sound protection gear. The stamps are smaller as well, so the factory ceilings can be lowered, dramatically cutting heating and cooling costs. The new stamps will be used in all Toyota’s new North American plants, according to Automotive News, and will be retrofitted to older plants. The main difference is the technology, which uses servo motors rather than hydraulics. Toyota is the world’s first automaker to use the new technology.

North America: United States, Canada, Mexico


Toyota and Mazda are building a new plant in Alabama, which will make around 300,000 crossovers per year, divided evenly between the two companies.

San Antonio, Texas (TMMTX)

Built in 2006, made one Tundra per minute in 2007, with 2,100 employees. Total cost, $1.3 billion, capacity, 200,000 per year. Later, started making Tacomas as Tundra sales failed to reach desired levels. In 2020-21, will start making Sequoias and stop making Tacomas.

See the Texas plant

Toyota's manufacturing and design systems

Fremont, California (NUMMI)

Toyota’s first US plant, opened in 1984, a joint venture with GM noted for its high quality. Had 5,400 employees in 2006, run by a Japanese president. Closed in 2010: put into bankruptcy by Toyota, with the US pension guarantee fund taking up Toyota’s share of workers’ pensions.

In 2003, made 157,561 Corollas, 161,566 Tacomas, 1,733 Voltz*, 74,223 Pontiac Vibes — total, 395,083. They had a theoretical capacity (when closed) of 370,000 vehicles; in 2006, they made 428,633 Corollas and Vibes.

Huntsville, Alabama

Opened 2003; made V6 and V8 engines for Toyota pickups. Built 52,318 V8s in 2003, using 350 people. Capacity was 120,000 V8s, 130,000 V6 engines. In 2005, had 500 employees.

Tijuana, Mexico

Opened in 2002 to build the Tacoma; made 34,465 Tacomas in 2006. Had 150 empoyees to start, 700 in 2004. Capacity 30,000 trucks and 180,000 beds. Japanese president in 2007; expanded to capacity of 50,000 trucks, 760 employees in 2007. To be expanded again or to gain an extra shift in 2021 to boost Tacoma output.

Cambridge, Ontario

The company’s only surviving union plant, out of two (the other was NUMMI). Known for high quality. Opened in 1987, it was Canada’s first Toyota assembly plant, and North America’s third; after this one, plants were to be built in anti-union states, preferably over farmland rather than re-using industrial sites.

Princeton, Indiana

Powertrain plant opened in 1996; made four-speed Camry automatics, five-speed Sienna and RX330 automatics, and Corolla/Matrix/Vibe engines in 2003. Total production in 2003 included 360,000 transmissions.

Assembly plant opened 1996; built 109,025 Tundras and 77,561 Sequoias in 2002. Built 105,663 Tundras, 66,671 Sequoias, and 119,196 Siennas in 2003. Built 324,190 Tundras, Sequoias, and Siennas in 2006. 4,700 employees in 2003, 4,645 in 2006. Capacity around 500,000 vehicles.

In 2021, the plant will stop making Sequoias, leaving more space open for more Highlanders and Siennas. It was upgraded in 2019-2020. Sequoia was an odd one for the plant to make, since it’s body-on-frame and the others are unibody.

Georgetown, Kentucky

When built, it was Toyota’s largest factory outside of Japan, and had the highest production of any import plant in the US. It builds engines and powertrain parts as well as assembling cars, and made Toyota’s first American-built hybrid. In 2006, the plant president was American. Models in 2002 were the Avalon, Camry, and Solara; in 2003, Avalon, Camry, Solara, and Sienna; in 2006, Avalon, Camry, Solar, and Camry Hybrid. The 2003 roster had 6,900 employees with a capacity of half a million vehicles and half a million engines.

Buffalo, West Virginia

Engine and transmission plant; started making automatic transmission gears in 2006. Built 201,273 four-cylinders, 152,070 V6 engines, and 360,957 transmissions in 2002. Built 225,402 fours, 171,808 sixes, and 382,510 transmissions in 2003. 930 employees.

Delta, British Columbia (Canadian Autoparts Toyota)

Built in 1983, this plant makes aluminum alloy wheels for North America and Japan, with a 1.45 million wheel capacity in 2003.

Long Beach, Canada (TABC)

Toyota’s first U.S. manufacturing plant; produces sheet metal components, steering columns, catalytic converters, and coated catalytic substrates for US and export. Assembled commercial trucks for Hino Motors to be sold in North America and beginning in 2005, assembled four-cylinder engines.

Blue Springs, Mississippi (near Tupelo)

Built in 2010, making Highlanders with 2,000 employees (in 2010). Cost, $1.3 billion.


This list does not include such support systems as Toyota Tsusho America (mostly logistics - import and export; Tsusho is Japanese for trading, and they are basically a logistics service for Toyota). In Georgetown they have a steel division that imports steel for TMMK directly or to various customers who then form/cut/etc. and then resell to TMMK. Another section deals mainly with car parts imported from the parent company in Japan, Toyota Tsusho Corporation. They warehouse and/or crossdock to our customers, the main ones being TMMK subsidiaries or suppliers. Another section imports fabric and upholstery and has a die/cut operation. Another section orders and supplies service parts for the TMMK plant lines to keep them up and running. "Our current President is Takashi Hasegawa and Vice President is Yoshiki Miura." Thanks to Judith Jansen for pointing out the absence of Georgetown and letting us known about Tsusho.

Thanks to Ali Robinson for pointing to a more current resources which led us to fix Kentucky information and add Delta, B.C. and Long Beach, CA.

Toyota Canada Inc. (TCI) is in Toronto, with regional offices in Vancouver, Calgary, Montreal and Halifax. Toyota parts and accessories are distributed through TCI’s Parts Distribution Centres in Toronto and Vancouver. Three Toyota models - the Corolla, Matrix, and Camry Solara - are built in Canada by Toyota Motor Manufacturing Canada Inc. in Cambridge Ontario.

Europe and Africa

Toyota first entered the United Kingdom in 1992, and currently employees nearly 3,000 people there. The Avensis and Corolla are made at Burnaston (near Derby), and engines are made at Deeside, North Wales. The Bernaston plant, Toyota’s first auto assembly plant in Europe, can make up to 220,000 cars per year.

Toyota seems satisfied with its British factories, despite the strength of the pound against the euro. Toyota argued that, while other companies (particularly Ford) are moving to continental Europe to get better exchange rate, Toyota was happy with the efficiency of its British plants, particularly the Burnaston factory.

TMC = Toyota Motor Corp., TEMA = Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America,Inc., TICO = Toyota Industries Corp.

Location Name Start of operations Toyota
Products Number of employees 2006 production
Czech Republic Toyota Peugeot Citroën Automobile Czech (TPCA) * Feb. 2005 TMC 50%
Peugeot-Citroën 50%
Aygo 3,345 100,000
France Toyota Motor Manufacturing France S.A.S. (TMMF) Jan. 2001 TME 100% Yaris, engines 3,829 250,000 Yaris
192,000 engines
Kenya Associated Vehicle Assemblers Ltd. Aug. 1977 None Hiace, Land Cruiser 360 1,000
Poland Toyota Motor Manufacturing Poland (TMMP) Apr. 2002 TME 94.3% Transmissions, engines 1,982 331,000 transmissions
102,000 engines

Poland Toyota Motor Industries Poland (TMIP) Mar. 2005 TME 60%
TICO 40%
Engines 932 45,000
Portugal Toyota Caetano Portugal. Aug. 1968 TMC 27% Dyna, Hiace, Optimo 950 4,000
Russia Toyota Motor Manufacturing Russia (TMMR) Dec. 2007 TMC 80%
EBRD 20%
Camry 600
South Africa Toyota South Africa Motors Jun-62 TMC 75.0% Corolla, Dyna, Hiace, Hilux, Fortuner, engines 8,690 147,000 vehicles
96,000 engines
Turkey Toyota Motor Manufacturing Turkey (TMMT) Sep. 1994 TME 90%
Mitsui 10%
Corolla 3,421 177,000
U.K. Toyota Motor Manufacturing (UK) (TMUK) Sep. 1992 TME 100% Avensis, Corolla, engines 4,897 282,000 vehicles
175,000 engines

Toyota Asian factories (outside of Japan)

toyota parts depot, 1968

TMC = Toyota Motor Corp., TEMA = Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America,Inc., TICO = Toyota Industries Corp.


Name Start of operations TMC-related equity Products Number of employees 2006 production
Tianjin Jinfeng Auto Parts Co., Ltd. (TJAC) July 1997 TMC 30% Steering assy, propeller shafts 410
Tianjin Fengjin Auto Parts Co., Ltd. (TFAP) May 1998 TMC 90% Continuous velocity joints, axles 350
Tianjin FAW Toyota Engine Co., Ltd. (TFTE) Jul 1998 TMC 50% Engines 800 134,000 engines
Tianjin Toyota Forging Co., Ltd. (TTFC) Dec 1998 TMC 100% Forging parts 100
Tianjin FAW Toyota Motor Co., Ltd. (TFTM) Oct 2002 TMC 40%
TMCI 10%
Corolla, Vios, Crown, Reiz 2,310 209,000
FAW Toyota (Changchun) Engine Co., Ltd. (FTCE) Dec 2004 TMC 50% Engines 250
Toyota FAW (Tianjin) Dies Co., Ltd. (TFTD) Dec 2004 TMC 90% Stamping dies for vehicles 160
Guangqi Toyota Engine Co., Ltd. (GTE) Jan 2005 TMC 57.6%
TMCI 12.4%
Engines, engine parts (cams, cranks) 50
Sichuan FAW Toyota Motor Co., Ltd. (SFTM) * Dec 2000 TMC 45%
TTC 5%
Coaster, Land Cruiser, Prado, Prius 1,800 16,000
Guangzhou Toyota Motor Co., Ltd. (GTMC) May 2006 TMC 30.5%
TMCI 19.5%
Camry 1,400 61,000

Other Asia

Location Name Start of operations TMC-related equity Products Number of employees 2006 production
Bangladesh Aftab Automobiles* June 1982 None?! Land Cruiser 110
Taiwan Kuozui Motors, Ltd. Jan 1986 TMC 51.7% Camry, Corolla, Hiace, Vios, Zace, Wish, Yaris, engines, stamping parts 2,486 97,000
India Toyota Kirloskar Motor Private Ltd.(TKM) Dec 1999 TMC 89% Innova, Corolla 2,567 44,000
India Toyota Kirloskar Auto Parts Private Ltd.(TKAP) July 2002 TMC 64%
TICO 26%
Axles, propeller shafts, transmissions 742
Indonesia PT. Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia May 1970 TMC 95% Dyna, Fortuner, Innova, Kijang, engines 3,949 60,000 cars
233,000 engines
Indonesia P.T. Astra Daihatsu Motor Jan 1992 TMC 61.75% Avanza 5,045 63,000
Malaysia Assembly Services Sdn. Bhd (ASSB) Feb 1968 UMW Toyota 100% Camry, Corolla, Vios, Hiace, engines, Hilux, Innova, Fortuner 3,232 54,000 cars
11,000 engines
Malaysia Perodua Manufacturing Sdn. Bhd Aug. 1994 TMC 51% Avanza 6,486 28,000
Pakistan Indus Motor Company Ltd.* Mar. 1993 TMC 12.5%
TTC 12.5%
Corolla, Hilux 1,651 35,000
Philippines Toyota Autoparts Philippines Inc. (TAP) Sep. 1992 TMC 95% Transmissions, continuous velocity joints 578 221,000 transmissions
Philippines Toyota Motor Philippines Corp. (TMP) Feb. 1989 TMC 34% Camry, Corolla, Innova 1,289 14,000
Thailand Siam Toyota Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Jul 1989 TMC 96% Engines, propeller shafts, casting (block, head) 1,219 404,000 engines
Thailand Toyota Auto Body Thailand Co., Ltd. May 1979 TMT 49% Stamping parts 141
Thailand Toyota Motor Thailand Co., Ltd. (TMT) Dec 1964 TMC 86.4% Camry, Corolla, Vios, Wish, Hilux VIGO, Yaris 6,172 410,000
Thailand Thai Auto Work Co., Ltd. (TAW) May 1988 TABJ 20.0%
TABT 60.0%
Fortuner, Hilux VIGO 477 60,000
Vietnam Toyota Motor Vietnam Co., Ltd. Aug 1996 TMC 70% Camry, Corolla, Vios, Hiace, Land Cruiser, Innova 712 14,000

* Produces vehicles other than Toyotas, too.

Toyota plants in South America

Location Name Start of operations TMC-related equity Products Number of employees 2006 production
Argentina Toyota Argentina 1997 100% Hilux, Fortuner 2,523 65,000
Brazil Toyota do Brasil 1959 100% Components 2,525  
Brazil Toyota do Brasil 1998 100% Corolla 60,000
Colombia Sociedad de Fabricacion de Automores 1992 28% Land Cruiser Prado 1,316 7,000
Venezuela Toyota de Venezuela 1981 90% Corolla, Dyna, Land Cruiser, Fortuner, Hilux 1,708 23,000

The Brazilian plants are Sao Bernardo do Campo-Sao Paulo and Indaiatuba-Sao Paulo; the former is for components, the latter for cars. Indaiatubo built the Fielder until 2008.

Toyota’s factories in Japan

motomachi toyota plant

Name Main products Start of Operations Number of Employees Equity share (%)
Toyota Motor Kyushu, Inc. Harrier, Harrier Hybrid, Kluger, Kluger Hybrid, IS, ES 1992 4,191 100
Toyota Motor Hokkaido, Inc. Transmissions, transfers, aluminum wheels, drivetrain parts, etc. 1992 1,702 100
Toyota Motor Tohoku Co., Ltd. Mechanical and electronic parts 1998 237 100
Toyota Auto Body Co., Ltd. Hiace, Liteace, Voxy, Noah, Estima, Prius, Land Cruiser, Alphard, Ipsum, Townace, Regiusace, Coaster, Estima Hybrid, Alphard Hybrid, LX470 1945 10,628 56.03
Kanto Auto Works, Ltd. Century, Crown, Corolla Spacio, Corolla Fielder, Isis, Belta, SC, Auris, BLADE 1946 5,528 50.08
Central Motor Co., Ltd. Raum, MR-S, Scion xB, Corolla Axio, Corolla hatchbacks 1950 1,194 77
Gifu Auto Body Industry Co., Ltd. Hiace 1940 958 47.71
Daihatsu Motor,Co., Ltd. Rush, Passo, Probox, Succeed, bB, Porte, SIENTA 1907 11,209 51.19
Hino Motors, Ltd. Dyna, Townace, Liteace, FJ Cruiser, Toyoace, Hilux Surf 1942 9,507 50.11
Toyota Industries Corp. Vitz, RAV4 1926 10,584 23.51
Tahara plant Lexus ? ? 100
  We know there are more, would anyone care to contribute?      

The Lexus plant in Tahara, which builds the Lexus LS 600 and its engines, was recently profiled by Automotive News (July 9, 2007). To build the LS 600 h, workers are trained continuously, and recertified every four months. The cars are manually checked and rechecked, even to color shading and tints; 26,000 operations are checked at the plant. Workers learn to pick up the right number of bolts each time and do finger-strength exercises, and can hear when bolts are torqued correctly.

Each LS 600 h is test-driven for straight tracking 56 mph, for lack of noise, and for good reactions under hard braking and acceleration. Two hundred inspectors look for scratches on car bodies, twice as many as in a normal Toyota plant; 4,000 points are checked on each car. Robots also take over 1,200 photos of each car to find scratches that people might miss. Both people and machines check gaps and assure that body and interior panels are perfect. Paint colors are inspected under different types of light.

David Zatz, PhD, has also written histories of the Chrysler minivan, Dodge Viper, and various Jeeps.

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